When the raw cannabis plant goes through the extraction process, the desired constituents, i.e., cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes, are obtained from the cannabis material. These components are then infused into a carrier oil, resulting in cannabis-derived products.
The cannabinoid profile of the CBD oil in question can vary depending on the cannabis strain used in the preparation process. For instance, hemp-based extracts usually contain less than 0.3 percent THC (dry weight), making them non-intoxicating and containing high CBD levels.
Occasionally, cannabis extracts are derived from strains with an equal CBD-to-THC ratio or a THC content higher than 0.3 percent. Depending on the process used by manufacturers, the final CBD product containing the extracted cannabinoids is referred to as full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, or CBD isolates. Let’s take a look at them.
What Is Full-Spectrum CBD
Full-spectrum CBD products are produced from the whole cannabis plant and contain all cannabinoids, including CBD. That’s why full-spectrum CBD oil is also referred to as “whole-plant” oil. Full-spectrum CBD includes a whole range of cannabinoids, including:
- Cannabinol (CBN)
- Cannabigerol (CBG)
- Cannabichromene (CBC)
- Cannabidiol acid (CBDA)
- Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
- Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV).
Since it is literally “the whole plant,” a full-spectrum CBD contains THC. The cannabinoid THC is best known for its psychoactive effects and is primarily consumed as recreational or medicinal marijuana.
Both hemp and marijuana belong to the cannabis plant and contain CBD. However, hemp plants contain 0.3% THC or less, while marijuana plants have higher levels of THC. CBD full spectrum products ranging from CBD oil to CBD edibles, gummies, capsules, topical creams, lotions, and balms.
Full-spectrum CBD products contain not only CBD but also terpenes, flavonoids, vitamins, proteins, essential oils, and small traces of THC and other naturally occurring elements.
According to studies, the terpenes in cannabis produce the plant’s aroma and various health benefits. These benefits range from providing neuroprotective properties to an antioxidant or anti-inflammatory. Flavonoids are the chemical compounds that partially give the hemp plant its colour.
In addition, just like terpenes, flavonoids can potentially contribute to better health. For example, kaempferol– named after a 17th-century German naturalist– is a flavonoid produced in the hemp plant that some scientists have called a potentially effective “anti-cancer agent.”
CBN, CBG, CBC, THC, & Other Cannabinoids
CBN (cannabinol) is best known for its strong sedative effects, the most potent of all cannabinoids. CBN also has anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties. CBN is a cannabinoid obtained from oxidized THC. The longer the raw hemp plant matures, the more CBN it produces from its THC content. CBN is also known for its relaxing properties.
CBG (cannabigerol) is suggested to have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, and anti-fungal properties; scientists are testing it for positive effects on glaucoma, skin diseases, and even cancer. CBG is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid made from cannabigerol acid in the decarboxylation process.
CBC (cannabichromene) is another cannabis compound with an antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and anti-cancer properties. CBC is a cannabinoid found mainly in cannabis from tropical regions and is responsible for various beneficial reactions.
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) is the psychoactive component and the characteristic ingredient of marijuana typically associated with the “high.” Cannabidiol acid (CBDA) is the chemical precursor to CBD. It is the 2-carboxylic acid form of CBD and is a significant constituent found in the raw cannabis plant. CBDV is a minor cannabinoid that has a similar molecular structure to CBD.
THC & Health Status
Some people may worry that consuming CBD products containing THC will adversely affect their health despite the positive synergistic effect of CBD and THC. The National Institute on Drug Abuse states that the possible adverse effects of THC include:
- Altered sensory responses
- Mood changes
- Trouble thinking or remembering
- Impaired movement
- In some instances, hallucinations, delusions, or even psychosis
However, studies have found that the addition of CBD may protect against these effects. We need more research in this area, especially a systematic series of investigations on CBD: THC ratios; it’s almost impossible to certainly know how much cannabidiol is required to alleviate the impact of THC.
What Are Broad-Spectrum CBD Products
Broad-spectrum CBD– containing all cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids without THC– is exceptionally similar to full-spectrum CBD. Many choose to avoid taking THC for several reasons. The absence of THC allows you to take full advantage of the therapeutic benefits without experiencing the “stoned” feeling that typically occurs after consuming THC-rich products.
For example, you may have to undergo regular work-related drug tests or be concerned that even a tiny amount could be detected. In addition, taking a cannabinoid that has been shown to have psychoactive effects might make them uncomfortable.
Is CBD legal
Federal law recognizes hemp-derived CBD products with less than 0.3 percent THC are legal. However, they’re still illegal in some states. Check your local laws before travelling with CBD products to another country, region, or state (full spectrum or not).
What Is a CBD Isolate
You buy pure CBD oil if you find a CBD oil that says “isolate” on the label. However, make sure the labels are accurate and reliable. At FluxxLab, which has extensive lab and testing facilities, we constantly strive to develop new, better, and innovative hemp-derived CBD products (Visit our shop).
While CBD isolates may contain other ingredients, like a carrier MCT oil, they don’t contain detectable amounts of other cannabis compounds. Producers usually select a well-known and natural carrier oil in the preparation process, e.g., hemp seed oil or coconut oil.
Some isolates may also contain additional flavours. Whether you prefer a CBD isolate with or without flavouring is entirely up to you. In any case, the added flavour is not expected to impact the effectiveness of the CBD.
Even though CBD is essentially derived from the marijuana plant, it is not a narcotic, and CBD isolates rarely result in a false positive on a drug test. CBD isolate is a pure form of cannabidiol. It contains no other cannabinoids and usually comes from hemp plants with low THC content.
Full-Spectrum CBD vs. CBD Isolate
It’s crucial to know the difference between full-spectrum CBD and CBD isolate, i.e., the commercial counterpart of full-spectrum CBD. Cannabinoid users are strongly advised to research and understand the differences between full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum CBD, and CBD isolate.
The term (adjective) “full-spectrum” reflects the main differences. For example, in the case of CBD oils, we can define full-spectrum CBD oil as a product with multiple compounds extracted from a single hemp plant.
On the contrary, CBD isolate is essentially a single strain of CBD separated from a cannabis plant and “isolated” from other hemp-based species. These two differ primarily in their longevity and potency (strength).
Full-spectrum CBD is generally considered more effective thanks to its “collaborative nature” in fighting various ailments. On the other hand, CBD isolate induces a relatively weaker effect and shorter life span in the body than its full-spectrum counterpart.
The active cannabis compounds in full-spectrum CBD work together to enhance the benefits of the individual cannabinoids when these cannabis compounds and cannabinoids work synergistically, their entourage effect results.
What Are Terpenes
Both full-spectrum and broad-spectrum CBDs contain the hemp plant’s natural terpenes: i.e., molecules found in all plants. Terpenes are cannabis constituents responsible for the aroma of fruits, vegetables, and spices. Aromatherapists have been taking advantage of terpenes for centuries.
There are more than 200 terpenes in the cannabis plant that interact with receptors in the human body. This interaction occurs similarly to the interaction associated with cannabinoids (CBD and THC). Many terpenes produced in cannabis are also found in plants such as leafy greens, black pepper, and oregano.
Full-Spectrum CBD Oil
Perhaps the most popular CBD oil is in the full-spectrum category, containing all the beneficial cannabinoids found in the plant, including THC (even in tiny traces). While in specific cannabis contexts, the distinction between CBD oil and CBD tincture makes sense, we don’t distinguish between them in this article.
The THC content in full-spectrum CBD products sold in the US, Canada, and Europe is negligible to induce any intoxicating effect (which is what THC is known for) or the feeling of being “high.” So, when you shop at a reliable dispensary, you can rest assured that your full-spectrum CBD will not interfere with your ability to perform tasks that require your full attention.
Many of our customers choose this type of CBD oil as their supplement of choice. This is mainly due to the natural and beneficial ingredients in our Tincture Products. These ultra-premium CBD tinctures are the strongest and cleanest CBD you will ever experience.
Cannabinoids & Endocannabinoids
Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) belong to a class of chemical compounds called cannabinoids. These cannabis components are derived from the cannabis plant, and scientists have identified more than 100 of them to date.
These compounds’ uniqueness and fascination can be partly because cannabinoids are similar to endocannabinoids. Let’s try to break it down. Endocannabinoids are chemicals naturally made in the human body. Endocannabinoids are chemicals that the human body makes on its own. Their primary role is to send “go” and “stop” messages to specific receptors located throughout the body.
The interaction between these chemicals and the endocannabinoid receptors affects various functions in the human body. These functions are associated with things like anxiety, sleep quality, appetite, and pain management in complex ways.
Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are so similar that when CBD derived from hemp is consumed, the body’s receptors can interact with them similarly to endocannabinoids.
Although CBD and THC both come from the cannabis plant, they interact differently with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). THC has psychoactive properties and induces an intoxicating effect (high). On the other hand, CBD is not intoxicating and will never make you lose control.
Full-Spectrum CBD Oil, Vitamins, Proteins, & EFAs
Full-spectrum CBD oil combines the benefits of all these compounds (and more) and distinguishes the “vices of the plant” by eliminating or reducing THC content to negligible levels. Full-spectrum CBD contains cannabinoids and vitamins, proteins, and essential fats.
They may also contain an abundance of vitamins A, C, E, and B, along with 20 amino acids and essential fatty acids (EFAs), e.g., omega three and omega 6.
These amino acids can improve the human body’s ability to produce protein, among other beneficial properties. These compounds synergistically provide more benefits than broad-spectrum CBD products or CBD isolates.
More Nutrients in Full-Spectrum CBD
Anecdotal evidence suggests that consuming the “whole-plant product” increases potency in terms of each benefit, i.e., pain relief, lowered stress, and improved overall health.
Whole cannabis extract is packed with the following nutrients:
- Vitamins: A, C, and E, together with complex B vitamins like Niacin, Riboflavin, and Thiamine.
- Minerals: Zinc, potassium, iron, calcium, and phosphorus.
- Amino Acids: Omega 3 and Omega 6.
How to Consume Full-Spectrum CBD Oil
There are many taking full-spectrum CBD oil; the most common practice is perhaps to put a drop under the tongue. This allows the cannabidiol, terpenes, and flavonoids to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
This method is similar to oral consumption, where the oil first passes through the digestive system. When you place CBD oil under your tongue, the effects kick in much quicker than when you take it orally.
It’s recommended that you hold the CBD under your tongue for at least 30 seconds before swallowing to maximize the effectiveness of the absorption. If you dislike the taste of full-spectrum CBD oil, you can try edibles, gummies, or capsules.
You can also add your oil to various drinks, e.g., tea or smoothies. Generally, cannabidiol is popularly added to caffeinated beverages (coffee, for example), as CBD can help partly mitigate caffeine’s anxiety-inducing and jittery effects.
Full-spectrum CBD oil is added to edible products, such as gummies, and is also available in capsules. Again, if you don’t like the taste of CBD oil, you may opt for these options. When starting with full-spectrum CBD oil, always begin with the smallest amount (i.e., one drop).
The Entourage Effect
The components synthesized in the hemp plant can produce synergy in the human body, usually referred to as the “entourage effect.” The cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes all work together to enhance each other when ingested; they’re believed to increase therapeutic effects.
This effect is seen in both total- and broad-spectrum CBD products. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) in our bodies comprises a multitude of receptors located throughout the brain and central nervous system.
In our bodies, the ECS is primarily responsible for creating a state of homeostasis. This involves any process that living organisms use to maintain stable conditions necessary for survival actively. Two cannabinoid receptors are of particular interest here:
- CB1 receptor: It is predominantly found in the brain and affects our movement and coordination, memories, thinking, emotions, appetite, pain, and other functions.
- CB2 receptor: It is found mainly in the immune system and impacts inflammation and pain.
CBD Extraction Process
Cannabidiol (CBD) does not grow on the cannabis plant as the walnut grows on the walnut tree. Instead, growers must use an extraction process to get CBD. The CO2 extraction method, for example, is prevalent among producers of high-quality CBD because it allows for safe preparation and gentle treatment of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids.
The Benefits of Full-Spectrum CBD
In a 2015 study on full-spectrum CBD oil, scientists thoroughly compared the performance of a full-spectrum cannabis extract to that of a CBD isolate. The study indicated that, in mice, the full-spectrum extract was more helpful for pain and inflammation. The authors suggested that whole-plant CBD products can be “ideal for clinical uses.”
In other words, pure CBD isolate can be effective, but it seems that the full-spectrum extract is more beneficial for therapeutic properties. The “entourage effect,” mentioned earlier, explains the efficacy of whole-plant CBD extracts. Researchers have identified more than 100 cannabis compounds in the Cannabis sativa L. plant.
In the presence of other cannabinoids, these molecules could work synergistically to enhance physiological effects. Studies on marijuana-derived CBD products’ potential health benefits and risks continue, with particular attention paid to full-spectrum CBD oil.
While the evidence is limited, and most studies focus on the effects of full-spectrum CBD oil on mice (not humans), the initial results suggest that full-spectrum CBD oil is promising, especially concerning the following treatment aspects.
Full-spectrum CBD can relieve the signs of chronic anxiety. There is also some evidence that CBD helps patients lower anxiety levels, and it shows minimal side effects and improves sleep patterns.
Cannabidiol may be beneficial for patients with neurological disorders: especially epilepsy. In a study, CBD was shown to mitigate the frequency of seizures in treatment-resistant adults and children.
CBD may have protective properties for injuries to the colon and may also be helpful for health problems such as inflammatory bowel disease.
An important takeaway from the initial findings on full-spectrum CBD is that it could last much longer than isolated CBD in treating various ailments and disorders.
By combining various cannabinoids into a single, unified, and bundled treatment, the “team effect” of full-spectrum CBD products in treating multiple ailments may last a long time and provide users with more sustainable and effective treatment options.
Which CBD Oil Is the Best
Various factors can influence which formulation you choose, including desired effects, lifestyle, and whether you want THC added. When comparing full-spectrum CBD and broad-spectrum CBD, a primary consideration is how the low THC content in a full-spectrum CBD product will affect you.
Full-spectrum CBD contains all the phytochemicals found in cannabis Sativa, such as cannabidiol, along with other cannabinoids (including THC), terpenes, and essential oils. However, according to law enforcement officials, the THC content is usually less than 0.3 percent.
If you are under the impression that THC might help you anyway, you prefer the full-spectrum CBD product. On the other hand, some people are sensitive to THC and are better served by broad-spectrum CBD. You know your body best.
Therefore, which of these spectrums suits you better is something you should decide for yourself, perhaps with the advice and help of your doctor. Also, since there are no established guidelines for cannabidiol dosage in the CBD industry, you should consult a doctor who is knowledgeable about cannabis.
Potential Risks & Side Effects of Full-Spectrum CBD Products
While most user experiences with full-spectrum CBD are positive, we likely ignore its potential downsides. You can use most CBD products with no apparent side effects. However, CBD’s effects on individuals are unique, and specific side effects have been reported – most notably weight and appetite changes and fatigue.
While the number of full-spectrum CBD products is growing, the federal government has not conducted definitive clinical research on full-spectrum CBD, primarily through the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Until the government contributes to the cannabinoid market or industry, consumer acceptance and demand may be limited.
Please check out our website and our informative blog if you would like to try our quality full-spectrum CBD products or contact us for more information.